05. 10. 2022.



Carrageenans are polysaccharides which are extracted from red algae and used in industry as thickeners and stabilizing agents.

Their special advantage is extensibility – thinner under pressure and returning the viscosity after the cessation of pressure.This means that they are easily injected after which they are hardened again.

Although carrageenan was started to be used in the industry around 1930., they were first used in China around year 600. BC and in Ireland about year 400 g AD.

There are three main commercial classes of carrageenan:

  • Kappa (a strong, rigid gels with potassium ions that react with milk protein)
  • Iota (soft gels with calcium)
  • Lambda (not gelling and used for thickening dairy products)

Many species of red algae produce different types of carrageenan. All are soluble in hot water, and only Lambda form is soluble in cold water.

Carrageenan has wide application in food industry such as production of desserts, ice cream, cream, milk, sauces, gels for increasing the viscosity, beer, pate and meat products, soy milk, etc. They are also used in pharmaceutical industry.


CAS:                           9000-07-1         

Molecular formula:             C24H34O31S4-4

Molecular mass:                946,76 g mol−1

Aspartame is an artificial sweetener in the form of granules or powder.

It is sweeter than sugar approx. 200 times and used as its replacement in production of food and beverages.

Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is the sodium salt of natural non-essential amino acid of glutamic acid.

In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder.

Ascorbic acid, better known as vitamin C, is powder or crystal of white to pale-yellow color with antioxidant properties.

The name is derived from a (“not”) and scorbutus (“scurvy”), disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C.

Glucose is a simple sugar, monosaccharide, and is one of the most important carbohydrates.

It is used as an energy source in animals and plants. It is also one of main products of photosynthesis and serves as a starting substance for respiration.

At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder, easily soluble in water.

It can be obtained from lemon, but is usually derived from sugar by fermentation, using molds.

Carrot is a root vegetable of, usually, orange, purple, red, white or yellow color.

In ancient times, carrot was used as a medicinal herb because it contains substantial amounts of vitamins and various minerals.

Tomato concentrate is a thick paste made from mature tomatoes from which seeds and skin have been removed.

There are 2 production processes – “hot” and “cold break“. The “Hot break” process heats tomatoes to about 100° C, “cold break” occurs at about 66° C..

Tomato powder is obtained by drying tomato concentrate in several ways.

Commercially, most common are AD (“air dried”) and SD (“Spray Dried”).