28. 09. 2023.

Royal jelly (lyophilized)

Royal jelly is a honey bee recrement of white to pale yellowish colour. It is secreted from glands in heads of young worker bees and it is used, with other substances, for feeding the larvae in the colony.

Also, when the need for the queen arises, selected larvae will receive large amounts of royal jelly as only food source for the first four days of its growth.

This rapid, early feeding activates development of queen’s morphology, which includes a fully developed ovaries, necessary for laying eggs. All larvae in the colony are fed with royal jelly, but adult bees do not consume it at all.

Royal jelly is collected from each individual cell (honeycomb) when larvae are about four days old. This is an excellent dietary supplement because it contains a variety of health benefits due to ingredients such as vitamins B-complex, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).

The overall composition of royal jelly is 67 % water, 12,5 % crude protein and 11 % simple sugars (monosaccharides), in which relatively high amount (5 %) of fatty acids is included. It also contains traces of many minerals, some enzymes, antibacterial and antibiotic ingredients and vitamin and traces.

Since the fresh royal jelly is unstable and easily changes appearance and properties, it is very common to apply procedure of lyophilization (taking water from the jelly at a temperature of about -60°C), which allows active ingredients to remain preserved for a long time, and, as pure substance is obtained, the absorption in tissue is much better.


Aspartame is an artificial sweetener in the form of granules or powder.

It is sweeter than sugar approx. 200 times and used as its replacement in production of food and beverages.

Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is the sodium salt of natural non-essential amino acid of glutamic acid.

In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder.

Ascorbic acid, better known as vitamin C, is powder or crystal of white to pale-yellow color with antioxidant properties.

The name is derived from a (“not”) and scorbutus (“scurvy”), disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C.

Glucose is a simple sugar, monosaccharide, and is one of the most important carbohydrates.

It is used as an energy source in animals and plants. It is also one of main products of photosynthesis and serves as a starting substance for respiration.

At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder, easily soluble in water.

It can be obtained from lemon, but is usually derived from sugar by fermentation, using molds.

Carrot is a root vegetable of, usually, orange, purple, red, white or yellow color.

In ancient times, carrot was used as a medicinal herb because it contains substantial amounts of vitamins and various minerals.

Tomato concentrate is a thick paste made from mature tomatoes from which seeds and skin have been removed.

There are 2 production processes – “hot” and “cold break“. The “Hot break” process heats tomatoes to about 100° C, “cold break” occurs at about 66° C..

Tomato powder is obtained by drying tomato concentrate in several ways.

Commercially, most common are AD (“air dried”) and SD (“Spray Dried”).